As you know, all the functions in our body are interconnected.
A good example is our pituitary gland - read how many functions it is responsible for!
Therefore, instead of thinking of disease, think of addressing the whole picture.
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posted on en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pituitary_gland
In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing 0.5 grams (0.018 oz) in humans. It is a protrusion off the bottom of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain. The hypophysis rests upon the hypophysial fossa of the sphenoid bone in the center of the middle cranial fossa and is surrounded by a small bony cavity (sella turcica) covered by a dural fold (diaphragma sellae). The anterior pituitary (or adenohypophysis) is a lobe of the gland that regulates several physiological processes (including stress, growth, reproduction, and lactation). The intermediate lobe synthesises and secretes melanocyte stimulating hormone. The posterior pituitary (or neurohypophysis) is a lobe of the gland that is functionally connected to the hypothalamus by the median eminence via a small tube called the pituitary stalk (also called the infundibular stalk or the infundibulum).
The anterior pituitary synthesizes and secretes hormones. All releasing hormones (-RH) referred to, can also be referred to as releasing factors (-RF).
- Human growth hormone (HGH), also referred to as 'growth hormone' (GH), and also as somatotropin, is released under the influence of hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), and is inhibited by hypothalamic somatostatin
- Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), is released under the influence of hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and is inhibited by somatostatin.
- Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and Beta-endorphin are released under the influence of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH).
- Prolactin (PRL), also known as 'Luteotropic' hormone (LTH), whose release is inconsistently stimulated by hypothalamic TRH, oxytocin, vasopressin, vasoactive intestinal peptide, angiotensin II, neuropeptide Y, galanin, substance P, bombesin-like peptides (gastrin-releasing peptide, neuromedin B and C), and neurotensin, and inhibited by hypothalamic dopamine.
- Luteinizing hormone (also referred to as 'Lutropin' or 'LH').
- Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), both released under influence of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH)
These hormones are released from the anterior pituitary under the influence of the hypothalamus. Hypothalamic hormones are secreted to the anterior lobe by way of a special capillary system, called the hypothalamic-hypophysial portal system.
The intermediate lobe synthesizes and secretes the following important endocrine hormone:
- Melanocyte–stimulating hormone (MSH). This is also produced in the anterior lobe.When produced in the intermediate lobe, MSHs are sometimes called "intermedins".
The posterior pituitary stores and secretes (not synthesize) the following important endocrine hormones:
- Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, also known as vasopressin and arginine vasopressin AVP), the majority of which is released from the supraoptic nucleus in thehypothalamus.
- Oxytocin, most of which is released from the paraventricular nucleus in the hypothalamus. Oxytocin is one of the few hormones to create a positive feedback loop. For example, uterine contractions stimulate the release of oxytocin from the posterior pituitary, which, in turn, increases uterine contractions. This positive feedback loop continues throughout labour.
Hormones secreted from the pituitary gland help control the following body processes:
- Blood pressure
- Some aspects of pregnancy and childbirth including stimulation of uterine contractions during childbirth
- Breast milk production
- Sex organ functions in both males and females
- Thyroid gland function
- The conversion of food into energy (metabolism)
- Water and osmolarity regulation in the body
- Water balance via the control of reabsorption of water by the kidneys
- Temperature regulation
- Pain relief
Some of the diseases involving the pituitary gland are:
- Central diabetes insipidus caused by a deficiency of vasopressin.
- Gigantism and acromegaly caused by an excess of growth hormone.
- Hypothyroidism caused by a deficiency of thyroid-stimulating hormone.
- Hyperpituitarism, the increased (hyper) secretion of one or more of the hormones normally produced by the pituitary gland.
- Hypopituitarism, the decreased (hypo) secretion of one or more of the hormones normally produced by the pituitary gland.
- Panhypopituitarism a decreased secretion of most of the pituitary hormones.
- Pituitary tumours.
- Pituitary adenomas, noncancerous tumors that occur in the pituitary gland.
All of the functions of the pituitary gland can be adversely affected by an over or under production of associated hormones.